Hydrogen Flux Literature

Hydrosteel 6000 was launched at the NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers) Corrosion Expo, April 2000, Orlando. It soon became evident that this technology offered dramatically enhanced prowess over previous flux monitors, particularly with respect to accuracy, speed of measurement, and applications engaging high temperature steel surfaces. Ever since, Ion Science, as manufacturers of the technology, have engaged closely with the market to ensure flux measurements can be correctly interpreted and exploited to the full.

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Hydrogen flux application literature:

Detection and monitoring of naphthenic acid corrosion in a visbreaker unit using hydrogen flux measurements

J.M.O’Kane, T.F.Rudd, D.Cooke, F.W.H.Dean, S.J.Powell, , Corrosion 2010, Paper 10351, Conf. series, NACE, Houston, 2010

This paper details the use of flux measurements to characterise and confirm control of an incident of probable naphthenic acid corrosion. The various causes of flux variance over the visbreaker surface and over the monitoring time are discussed.

© NACE International. All rights reserved. Paper reproduced with permission. Download…

Examples of Use and Interpretation of Field Data Using a Portable Hydrogen Permeation Monitor.

A.M.Etheridge, E.B.McDonald, D.Go Serate, F.W.H.Dean, , Corrosion 2004, Paper 04477, NACE, New Orleans.

Three refinery locations were identified for the investigation of a hydrogen flux measurement tool. At the first, spot flux measurements were carried out at identical sites in a pair of very similar crude distillation units. Certain locations were proximal to a pulsed eddy current PEC monitor. Although hydrogen activities derived from the measured flux were very low, there was correspondence in flux activities obtained from identical measurement sites. The PEC measurements and proximal flux measurements were co-incidentally very low.

© NACE International. All rights reserved. Paper Number 04477 reproduced with permission from Corrosion/2004 Annual Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana. Download…

Applications of Hydrogen Flux Monitoring to Pre-Weld Bakeouts of Steel

C.N.Brown, M.J.Carroll, F.W.H.Dean, J.H.Harrison, A.Kettle, Corrosion 2004, Paper 04478, NACE, New Orleans.

During a pre-weld bakeout, hydrogen efflux was monitored in real time using the Hydrosteel 6000 bakeout kit. A circular section of a 50 mm thickness alkylation unit acid storage vessel dome which had developed severe hydrogen blistering was removed, and pre-weld bake-out applied using heat pads placed within twelve inches of the cut-away section perimeter, on the dome’s exterior face. A ring of eight hydrogen collection probes were placed under the heat pads, about six inches from the cut-away perimeter. These provided flux values indicating effective bake-out at five sites, and the need for extended bake-out at two neighbouring sites. An additional bake-out is presented in which near zero hydrogen effluxed. The work demonstrated that pre-weld heat treatment can be assessed, extended or reduced in real time, on evidence provided by spot high temperature hydrogen efflux measurements at a small number of sites.

© NACE International. All rights reserved. Paper Number 04478 reproduced with permission from Corrosion/2004 Annual Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana. Download…

Assessing the possibility of hydrogen damage in crude oil processing equipment

S.Al-Sulaiman, A.Al-Mithin, A.Al-Shamari, M.Islam, S.S.Prakash, Corrosion 2010, Paper 10176, Conference series, NACE, Houston, 2010.

A risk based approach to hydrogen damage (HIC) risk delivered by routine hydrogen flux measurements is presented. Field results are compared with risks anticipated at the evaluated sites of measurements.

Paper 10176 can be download via the NACE website

Hydrogen permeation application to crude unit overhead corrosion monitoring

F.Al-Faqeer, F.Addington, Corrosion 2008 , Paper 08548, NACE Conference Series, NACE, Houston 2008.

Practical applications of hydrogen flux monitoring resulting in better corrosion control.

Flux correlation with corrosion and crack risk.

Paper 08548 can be download via the NACE website

Correlation of hydrogen flux and corrosion rate measurements carried out in a severe episode of corrosion-erosion attributable to naphthenic acid

J.M.O’Kane, T.F.Rudd, J.H.Harrison, S.J.Powell, F.W.H.Dean, Corrosion 2010, Paper 10178, Conf. series, NACE, Houston, 2010.

This paper discusses the correlation of hydrogen flux with corrosion rate and temperature.

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Hydrogen Flux and High Temperature Corrosion

F.W.H. Dean, S.J.Powell,, Corrosion 2006, Paper 06436, NACE, New Orleans.

Preliminary laboratory assessment of flux vs corrosion rates obtained from refinery process stream samples and pure acids.

© NACE International. All rights reserved. Paper Number 06436 reproduced with permission from Corrosion/2006 Annual Conference and Exhibition, San Diego, California. Download…

Hydrogen flux and corrosion rate measurements on hydrogen induced cracking susceptible and resistant A516 steels in various sour environments

F.W.H.Dean, C.M.Fowler, R.Farnell, S.J.Mishael, Corrosion 2010, Paper 10179, Conf. series, NACE, Houston, 2010.

This paper summarises joint industrial project concerned with the Correlation of sour corrosion and hydrogen crack risk with hydrogen flux measurements.

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Measurement of hydrogen permeation through steel sections of varying thickness at 19 oC

F.W.H.Dean, , J. Materials Science & Technol., 21(3) (2005), 347-351.

Demonstrates that hydrogen flux is inversely proportional to steel thickness for steels > 3 mm thickness. Download…

Laboratory assessments.

Practical Application of Permeation Monitoring

S.J.Mishael, F.W.H.Dean, C.M.Fowler, Corrosion 2004, Paper 04476, NACE, New Orleans.

Laboratory applications of flux measurements discussed were effectiveness of HVOF metalizing on preventing permeation and monitoring sulfide scale stability, and the use of a simple modelling program to determine a diffusion coefficients during full ring testing and to determine sample soak duration when running hydrogen charged mechanical tests.

© NACE International. All rights reserved. Paper Number 04476 reproduced with permission from Corrosion/2004 Annual Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana. Download…

A Lab Study of Types of Corrosion Inducing Hydrogen Permeation Through Steel

F.W.H.Dean, S.J.Powell, Corrosion 2004, Paper 04472, NACE, New Orleans.

This work explored corrosion scenarios of industrial interest which induce hydrogen permeation through steel at 20-25 °C, and which are therefore amenable to hydrogen flux monitoring of steel corrosion at ambient temperatures. It was also shown that hydrogen flux exiting steel under steady state increased on removal of air-formed thick oxide films, although surface abrasion transiently caused a decreased flux due to in-filling of hydrogen traps produced thereby.

© NACE International. All rights reserved. Paper Number 04472 reproduced with permission from Corrosion/2004 Annual Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana. Download…

Correlation of Hydrogen Flux with Corrosion Rates Attending High Temperature Acid Corrosion

F.W.H.Dean, S.J.Powell, A.Witty,  Corrosion 2014, Paper 144089, Conference Series, NACE, Houston 2014.

The paper describes experiments of high temperature hydrogen flux generated from hydrogen gas – of known activity (pressure) thickness and composition.  This demonstrated the role of oxides in decreasing flux from hot steel surfaces in air.

© NACE International. All rights reserved. Paper Number 04472 reproduced with permission from Corrosion/2004 Annual Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana. Download…

Hydrogen damage in legacy steels

F.W.H.Dean, C.Fowler, Corrosion 2015, Paper 1456189, Conference Series, NACE, Houston 2015.

The paper discusses flux measurements obtained from steel which is typically susceptible to HIC, including the effect of existing hydrogen damage on subsequent hydrogen permeation generated by sour corrosion.

© NACE International. All rights reserved. Paper Number 04472 reproduced with permission from Corrosion/2004 Annual Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana. Download…